This is a "Living Document", our history is growing everyday. History is subject to change as we have new discoveries or old discoveries are re-evaluated. Much of Southern California History is quite similar with the advent of the European Invasion. As it has been said many times by many historians: "The Victor writes the History Books." So with that in mind, we do the best we can with the information that is available and as it is revealed to us.
Also to keep in mind, that for some Southern California tribes, we lived in paradise and the only sin we had was brought over to us by the European, namely the priest that held many of our people captive under the worst conditions imaginable. No better than Nazi concentration camps, along with similar atrocities. 

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A Brief Timeline of Tongva (Gabrieleño) History
In the Beginning  Our Creation Story tells us Before Time began we have been here!
50,000 BCE     Some Science is saying first occupation of the Americas
15,000-9000 BCE   others say the earliest dated evidence for Los Angeles
Basin occupation. The Tongva lived in a virtual paradise for thousands of years,
good weather, abundance of food, water and plenty of resources.
1200 CE  Peak of Culture and territorial expansion.
1542  Spanish arrive in Catalina (Pimu’nga) and San Pedro (Chaawenga,
 Palos Verdes-Chowiinga) harbor area ( Juan Cabrillo).
1602  Spain returns to Catalina and coastal sites (Vizcaino).
1769 Gaspar de Portola enters Tongva territory. European diseases
have already begun decimating the population. Conflicts begin.
1771  Mission San Gabriel founded at Isankanga and begins the process
of  “conversion”. Conflict with local Tongva forces the church to move to
present location at the village of Sibanga (1775-1776). Tongva name changed
to “Gabrieleño” and missionization process begins. Non converts integrate into
 social economic life, but not religious life.
1773  Second revolt against San Gabriel Mission
1776  De Anza expedition comes through Tongva territory.
1778  Mass conversions take place as some chiefs are “ Converted”.
1779  Conflicts  between church and military officials rage over who has the
authority of  “Indian labor”. The Third revolt against San Gabriel Mission.
1780  Nuesta Señora La Reyna de Los Angeles de la Portiuncula
founded at Yanga.
1785  October 25. After a  series of protest, Tongva resistance peaks with the
revolt of Toypurina, chief’s daughter and shaman. The  Fourth revolt is quashed;
 Toypurina is exiled to Monterey, baptized, and married to a Spanish soldier.
 She dies at San Juan Bautista and lies buried in an unmarked grave.
1786 Most “Gabrieliños” become a peasant class working for missions or the
 land gentry. Apartheid policy dominates church-state relationships with
1787 Fifth revolts in surrounding areas terrify church and state officials.
 Spanish hold control on a 20 mile radius around Los Angeles (Yanga).
1796 Gabrieleños become the major labor force in Pueblo de Los Angeles
and for outlying  ranches an farms.
1800 Most Gabrieleños are either missionized, murdered, killed, died from
diseases, or have fled to other areas and intermarried with Kokoémkam
(Serrano), Acjachemem (Juaneño), Cupa, or Kumitaraxam (Cahuilla) families.  
 Some flee as far as Monterey.    
1800-1833  Missions grow and ranches have expanded.  Most Gabrieliños
are are either in slave labor or in peasant class. Many are fugitive runaways.
Church and state send armed raids to capture escaped “converts” and also
those  who are not yet “converted”. Diseases continue to spread. Spanish
control  of Mission California 1769-1833: 64 years.
1823  The last mission, San Francisco Solano founded; San Diego is in decline.
1832-33 It is estimated there were around 300,000 California Indians in the 18th century, in about 250 distinct Indian cultures and California Indians spoke over 300 different dialects of some 100 languages.  In 1832-1833, the Hudson Bay Co. sponsored a fur trapping/scouting expedition to California. The expedition introduced smallpox, influenza and measles to the Indian population. This single expedition resulted in a 50 percent reduction in the entire California Indian population, destroying entire villages and tribes. In the 1850s, the Gold Rush further devastated the Indian population.  By 1860, less than 20 percent of the original Indian population remained.
1833  Missions are secularized after Mexico gains independence from Spain.
Most Gabrieleños become laborers  for the New Mexican rancheros.
Many Gabrieleños families are now scattered from Monterey  to San Diego;
some are living with groups in the remote interior.
1840-1850 Gabrieleño-Tongva language still in use. Some rituals and
games, traditional crafts still  maintained. Tongva is used by both Europeans
and Indians. Smallpox epidemics decimate all tribal people in the area.
California becomes a State; Indians barred from any participation.
 By the 1840’s the last Tongva towns are destroyed. Mexican control
of California 1833-1850:15 years.
1851 Jan.7th-Governor Peter Burnett first address to the legislature he promised,
 "That a war of extermination will continue to be waged between the races, until

the Indian race becomes extinct, must be expected. While we cannot anticipate

this result but with painful regret, the inevitable destiny of the race is beyond the

power or wisdom of man to avert."
Senator Weller stated "these Indians will in the end be exterminated.
They must soon be crushed - they will be exterminated before the onward march of the white man."
Two early bills passed by the California legislature allowed the organizati on and funding of militias
to kill Indians, April 1850, months before California was officially declared a state. the US government
set aside over $924,000 to reimburse California for expenses incurred in "Indian Wars" and another
$400,000 in 1861 for "Indian Wars" in 1854, 1855, 1856, 1858 and 1859.
1852  Hugo Reid publishes Indians of Los Angeles County. He marries Victoria
Comicrabit, Tongva from Comicranga. She is buried at San Gabriel Mission in
unmarked grave. She is an ancestor of the present Chief.
1853 Juana Maria (The Lone Woman of San Nicolas) is taken to
Santa Barbara; she dies in 6 weeks.
1869-1900 Smallpox epidemic continue to kill Gabrieleños. Isolated families
manage to survive and maintain traditions.
1903 C. Hart Merriam and A.L. Kroeber begin their study of the Gabrieleños.
They are in turn followed by DuBois and JPHarrington.    
1915-1933 JPHarrington records vocabularies, songs and cultures of
the Gabrieleños.[4 reels coded by Sutimiv-Pa’alat, from 2005-7]
1933 Helen H. Roberts publishes “Form in Primitive Music” which focuses
on Gabrieliños music and songs.
1940’s Tongva chiefdom continues from Chief Salvador; San Gabriel
(Sibanga) maintains the center of surviving Tongva culture.
1994 Both the City of San Gabriel and California Legislature pass
resolutions recognized the “Gabrieleño-Tongva Nation” as the indigenous  
peoples of  the Los Angeles Basin with a continuous unbroken history.
1995 February 6. Death of Fred “Sparky” Morales, Chief of the Tongva;
his son, Chief Red Blood Anthony Morales assumes the chiefdom. November,
the Tongva Nation Dancers are founded.
2004 Revitalization of Language begins again!!! Taught by our Mentor & Linguistic Professor Pam Munro from
UCLA, Classes held at the home of Strong Wave Warrior/ Jacob Gutierrez host and facilitator of the Tongva Language.
2008 Chief Red Blood Anthony Morales receives "Heritage Award" for his major
contribution to AB2641, helping to save our sacred sites and burial grounds.
2009 Tongva people receive sacred outrigger canoe from Micronesia, Polynesia, and
Melaysia Elders as the gate keepers of North America at the Science Center, San Pedro Calif. 

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